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题名 Na+与多浆旱生植物霸王抗旱性研究
姓名 李三相
院系 草业农业科技学院
专业 草业科学
学位名称 农学硕士
外文题名 The Effects of Sodium on Drought Resistance of Succulent Xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthonylon
第一导师姓名 王锁民
关键词 Na+;多浆旱生植物;霸王;生长;抗旱性
外文关键词 Sodium;Succulent xerophytes;Zygophyllum xanthonylon;Growth;Drought resistance
学科 农学
摘要 荒漠化是我国干旱、半干旱地区面临的最严重的问题。据第三次全国荒漠化监测,我国荒漠化面积已达263.62万km2,占国土总面积的27.46%。日趋严重的荒漠化扩展对西部地区经济、社会发展及人们的生存环境造成了严重的威胁。 生长在阿拉善荒漠中的多浆旱生植物霸王,在低盐环境中,也能吸收大量的Na+,并把Na+积累在植株地上部,这可能是霸王适应干旱环境的生理特征之一。但是对Na+在植物抗逆性中的生理作用研究较少,本文以霸王为材料,通过沙培和盆栽土培实验,对Na+在霸王生长和抗旱性中的生理作用进行了初步研究,取得如下结果: 1. 5~100mmol/LNaCl对霸王的生长有促进作用,其中50mmol/LNaCl对霸王生长的刺激作用最大,与对照相比,叶、茎和根的鲜重分别增加了104%、57%和149%(P<0.05),干重分别增加了34%、51%和65%(P<0.05),含水量分别增加了52%、35%和17%(P<0.05);同时 MDA含量显著降低,质膜透性减小,叶肉质化程度增强,有机干重增加。300mmol/LNaCl对霸王的生长产生抑制作用,与对照相比,叶和根的鲜重分别下降了19%和38%(P<0.05),其叶片质膜透性和MDA含量都显著增加。 2. 不同强度的渗透胁迫(-0.5、-1.0和-1.5MPa)下,50mmol/LNaCl显著提高霸王的抗旱能力,减轻了渗透胁迫对霸王生长造成的伤害,霸王鲜重和含水量显著增加(P<0.01)。在轻度渗透胁迫下(-0.5MPa),NaCl缓解渗透胁迫的作用最大,使植株的含水量和有机干重分别增加了201%和30%。 3. 相同渗透胁迫(-1.0MPa)下,在一定浓度范围内,随NaCl浓度的增加,霸王适应干旱环境的能力增强。与未施NaCl的处理相比较,5、50、100和200mmol/L NaCl处理使霸王叶鲜重分别增加了103%、177%、186%和131%(P<0.01),茎鲜重分别增加了26%、83%和157%和22%(P<0.05),根鲜重除200mmol/LNaCl处理使其降低了48%(P<0.05)外,其它处理对根鲜重影响不显著(P>0.05),叶质膜透性和MDA含量减小。 4. 在盆栽土培实验中,NaCl同样可以缓解缓慢干旱胁迫对霸王生长的抑制作用。干旱+盐处理组与干旱处理组相比,植株茎和根鲜重分别增加了35%和45%(P<0.05),叶、茎和根的干重分别增加了18%、37%和37%(P<0.05)。
外文摘要 Desertification is a serious problem in arid and semi-arid regions in China. According to the third monitor of desertification, 2,636,200Km2 of land area is desertified, about 27.46% of the total land area of China. Desertification has an adverse effect on social and economic development of northwest regions of China. Zygophyllum xanthonylon is a succulent shrub growing in the Alxa Desert of China. In the low salt and arid environments, Z. xanthonylon absorbed sodium and transported sodium into aboveground parts, which may be a main strategy that Z. xanthonylon adapted to drought stress. However physiological functions of sodium in plants under drought stress conditions are still unclear. In this study, the physiological functions of sodium in growth and drought resistance of succulent xerophytes, Z. xanthonylon were investigated by sand and pot culture. The main results were as following: 1. The low concentration of sodium(5~100mmol/L) stimulated the growth of Z. xanthonylon, and 50mmol/L NaCl was optimum concentration for the growth of Z. xanthonylon, compared with the control, fresh weight of leaves, stems and roots increased by 104%, 57% and 149% (P<0.05), respectively, Dry weight by 34%, 51% and 65% (P<0.05), water content by 52%, 35% and 17% (P<0.05), respectively. At the same time, MDA content and relative penetrability of membrane decreased significantly (P<0.05), succulent degree of leaves and relative organic dry weight increased. During treatment with 300mmol/L NaCl solution, compared with the control, fresh weight decreased by 19.3% and 38% (P<0.05) for leaves and roots of Z. xanthonylon, respectively, and relative penetrability of membrane and MDA content increased significantly (P<0.05). 2. Under the different osmotic stress (-0.5、-1.0和-1.5MPa), 50mmol/L NaCl alleviated growth inhibition of Z. xanthonylon caused by drought stress, fresh weight and water content increased significantly(P<0.01). Under the low-grade stress (-0.5MPa), water content and organic dry weight of plant increased by 201% and 30% (P<0.05). 3. Under the identical osmotic stress (-1.0MPa), with the increase of sodium concentrations, the ability for Z. xanthonylon to adapt to drought stress was enhanced. Compared with treatment without NaCl(0mmol/L), fresh weight increased by 103%, 177%, 186% and 131%(P<0.01)for leaves of Z. xanthonylon during treatments of 5, 50, 100 and 200mmol/L NaCl, respectively. Accordingly, fresh weight increased by 26%, 83%, 157% and 22%...
研究领域 牧草生理与栽培学
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