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题名 清代甘肃循化厅乡约研究
姓名 李稳稳
院系 历史文化学院
专业 中国近现代史
学位名称 史学硕士
外文题名 Study on Xiangyue of Xunhua Subprefecture of Gansu Province during the Qing Dynasty
第一导师姓名 杨红伟
关键词 清代;循化厅;乡约;国家政权建设;地方社会组织
外文关键词 Qing dynasty;Xunhua subprefecture;Xiangyue;State-building;Local social organization
学科 历史学
摘要 乡约作为一种基层社会自治性质的组织,始于宋朝,兴盛于明清。清朝平定青海蒙古罗卜藏丹津之乱后,在甘肃省藏边地区推行国家政权建设,此为循化厅乡约的肇始。雍正年间,循化厅乡约多设于汉族社区以及所谓“熟番”之地。乾隆朝平定苏四十三之变后,为强化王朝国家权力在循化厅少数族群地区的存在,乡约制度开始在撒拉族、回族等聚居区推行。同治回变后,循化厅乡约制度发展至顶峰,藏、回、汉各族普遍建立乡约组织,乡约的设置方式和人员构成更趋多元化,乡约的设置范围不断扩大,乡约人数也逐渐增多。值得注意的是,清代循化厅乡约的设置方式主要是依托原有的基层社会组织,将原有部落头人、寺院阿訇或村庄头目等任命为乡约,将乡约这一半官职角色糅入其原有的社会结构当中。有清一代,循化厅乡约行政化的趋势日渐显著,表明清朝对少数族群地区基层社会控制的逐步强化。循化厅社会的边缘性、族群的多样性与文化的多元性等特色,造成其乡约制度具有与内地社会迥异的特色。除了设置之初即被赋予浓厚的行政职能外,循化厅乡约的司法职能和宗教职能较为突出,在调解部落纷争、民间纠纷、维护地方社会秩序和边疆稳定等社会政治场域发挥着不可或缺的作用。
外文摘要 As an autonomous organization in grass-roots society, Xiangyue began in Song dynasty and thrived in Ming and Qing dynasty. After the rebellion of Lob Tsangdanjin, who was the Mongolian nobility in Qinghai, Qing dynasty began to implement the state-building in Gansu Tibetan, so that Xiangyue of Xunhua subprefecture began. Xiangyue of Xunhua subprefecture carried out in the Han community and the so-called shufan during the years of Yongzheng Emperor. After the revolt of Su sishisan, Qian long Emperor strengthened existence of the dynasty in Xunhua subprefecture, which was the ethnic minority areas, the system of Xiangyue began in the salar, hui and other areas. After the uprising of Hui in the years of Tongzhi Emperor, the Xiangyue system of Xunhua subprefecture developed to the climax. The Tibetan, the Hui and the Han established generally the organization of Xiangyue, which was more diversified on setting mode and personnel composition and expanded gradually on the scope and the number of Xiangyue. It is noted that the setting mode of Xiangyue in Xunhua subprefecture was mainly based on the original social grass-root organizations, and the original tribal chief, Masjid’s Akhond or village leader were appointed as Xiangyue, whose half office role mixed with its original social structure in Qing dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, the trendency of administerization of Xunhua subprefecture’s Xiangyue had increasingly significant and this suggests that Qing dynasty gradually strengthened the social control in minority grass-roots areas. The marginality of society, the diversity of ethnic groups and the diversification of culture, which led to different characteristics in the system of Xiangyue with the mainland society. At the beginning of the set of Xunhua subprefecture’s Xiangyue, which was endowed with strong administrative functions, In addition, the judicial and religious function were more outstanding, especially in mediated tribal disputes, civil disputes, maintained social order and the stability of border areas, which played an indispensable role in such social and political fields. The combination of Xunhua subprefecture’s Xiangyue and local social structure manifests as the infiltration and integration of enlightenment function and religious functions to a certain extent. The combination of State-building construction and local social structure, national political cultural construction and local religious culture, ethnic culture, provided guar...
研究领域 中国近代社会史
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