At present, Li-ion batteries have been the vital power sources for mobile electronic devices. However, the currently used commercialized graphite anode only have a theoretical specific capacity of 372 mA h/g, which is hindering the development of Li-ion batteries. At room temperature, Si and Ge have theoretical specific capacities of 3579 and 1384 mA h/g, respectively, are considered as the most promising candidates for anodes of Li-ion batteries. But unfortunately, Si and Ge anodes always undergo a rapid capacity fading caused by severe volume change (~300%) during Li-ion insertion and extraction. Meanwhile, Si and Ge as the typical semiconductor materials, the conductivities are not high enough, which always leads to a poor rate performance. In this thesis, for the purpose of developing Li-ion batteries with improved rate capability and cyclability, we intend to design and fabricate Si and Ge thin film anodes on nanostructured current-collectors. And the obtained anodes was studied from the aspects of nanostructure optimization, fabricating-method exploration, micro-structure, morphology and electrochemical performance.